Pediatric efficacy and safety for Levemir®

Tresiba® (insulin degludec injection) 100 U/mL, 200 U/mL

Another long-acting insulin from Novo Nordisk

Tresiba® is the only basal insulin indicated for type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children as young as 1 year of age.1

Similar A1C values vs NPH insulin in patients aged 2 to 16 years2

Tresiba® is not recommended for pediatric patients requiring less than 5 units.

Similar A1C values vs NPH insulin in patients aged 2 to 16 years2

Mean A1C values, measured over the 52-week period, for children and adolescents taking Levemir® and NPH insulin2

Mean A1C levels in patients aged 2 to 16 years taking Levemir® vs NPH insulin

aFrom an ANCOVA model adjusted for baseline value, country, pubertal status at baseline, and age (stratification factor).


Levemir® safety results

✔ Safety results


In the same study, children as young as 2 years of age with type 1 diabetes who received Levemir® had comparable hypoglycemic episodes vs children who received NPH insulin.2,b

  • Non-severe hypoglycemia (event/patient/year): Levemir® (56.1); NPH (70.7)
  • Severe hypoglycemia (event/patient/year): Levemir® (0.02); NPH (0.09)

bNon-severe hypoglycemia=asymptomatic events with PG <65 mg/dL as well as symptomatic events that were self-treated or treated by taking oral therapy provided by the caregiver. Severe hypoglycemia = event with semi-consciousness, unconsciousness, coma and/or convulsions in a child who could not assist in treatment and who may have required glucagon or IV glucose.

Study design2

In a 52-week, randomized, controlled, open-label study, 347 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes were stratified according to age (2 to 5 years, n=82; 6 to 16 years, n=265) at randomization.

  • This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of Levemir® and NPH insulin as part of a basal-bolus regimen that included NovoLog® (insulin aspart injection) 100 U/mL before each meal
  • Patients were randomized to receive either Levemir® (n=177) or NPH insulin (n=170) once or twice daily according to their pretrial basal insulin dose regimen
  • Patients in the NPH insulin group had no change in FPG (baseline=141 mg/dL)
  • This study had comparable rates of hypoglycemia between Levemir® and NPH insulin

Selected Important Safety Information for Levemir® (insulin detemir [rDNA origin] injection)

Contraindications

  • Levemir® is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to Levemir® or any of its excipients.

Warnings and Precautions

  • Never Share a Levemir® FlexTouch® Between Patients, even if the needle is changed. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
  • Dosage adjustment and monitoring: Monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin. Insulin regimens should be modified cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may result in the need for a change in insulin dose or an adjustment of concomitant anti-diabetic treatment.
  • Administration: Do not dilute or mix with any other insulin or solution. Do not administer subcutaneously via an insulin pump, intramuscularly, or intravenously because severe hypoglycemia can occur.

Levemir® (insulin detemir [rDNA origin] injection) Indications and Usage

  • Levemir® (insulin detemir [rDNA origin] injection) is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and children with diabetes mellitus.

Important Limitations of Use

  • Levemir® is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Intravenous rapid-acting or short-acting insulin is the preferred treatment for this condition.

Important Safety Information

Contraindications

  • Levemir® is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to Levemir® or any of its excipients.

Warnings and Precautions

  • Never Share a Levemir® FlexTouch® Between Patients, even if the needle is changed. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
  • Dosage adjustment and monitoring: Monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin. Insulin regimens should be modified cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may result in the need for a change in the insulin dose or an adjustment of concomitant anti-diabetic treatment.
  • Administration: Do not dilute or mix with any other insulin or solution. Do not administer subcutaneously via an insulin pump, intramuscularly, or intravenously because severe hypoglycemia can occur.

  • Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin therapy and may be life-threatening. When a GLP-1 receptor agonist is used in combination with Levemir®, the Levemir® dose may need to be lowered or more conservatively titrated to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia.

  • Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions: Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur with insulin products, including Levemir®.

  • Renal and hepatic impairment: Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin, including Levemir®, may be necessary in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.
  • Drug interactions: Some medications may alter insulin requirements and subsequently increase the risk for hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
  • Fluid retention and heart failure with concomitant use of PPAR-gamma agonists: Fluid retention and heart failure can occur with concomitant use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are PPAR-gamma agonists, and insulin, including Levemir®. Patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure occurs, dosage reduction or discontinuation of the TZD must be considered.

Adverse Reactions

  • Adverse reactions associated with Levemir® include hypoglycemia, allergic reactions, injection site reactions, lipodystrophy, rash, pruritus, and if taken with a GLP-1 receptor agonist, diarrhea.

Use in Specific Populations

  • Levemir® has not been studied in children with type 2 diabetes or in children with type 1 diabetes who are younger than 2 years of age.

  • The background risk of birth defects, pregnancy loss, or other adverse events that exists for all pregnancies is increased in pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia.

Please click here for Levemir® Prescribing Information.

 

Tresiba® (insulin degludec injection) is indicated to improve glycemic control in patients 1 year of age and older with diabetes mellitus.

Limitations of Use

Tresiba® is not recommended for treating diabetic ketoacidosis or for pediatric patients requiring less than 5 units of Tresiba®.

Important Safety Information

Contraindications

  • Tresiba® is contraindicated during episodes of hypoglycemia and in patients with hypersensitivity to Tresiba® or one of its excipients

Warnings and Precautions

  • Never Share a Tresiba® FlexTouch® Pen Between Patients, even if the needle is changed. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens
  • Monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin. Changes in insulin may affect glycemic control. These changes should be made cautiously and under medical supervision. Adjustments in concomitant anti-diabetic treatment may be needed
  • Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin, including Tresiba®, and may be life-threatening. Increase monitoring with changes to: insulin dose, co-administered glucose lowering medications, meal pattern, physical activity; and in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness or renal or hepatic impairment
  • Accidental mix-ups between basal insulin products and other insulins, particularly rapid-acting insulins, have been reported. To avoid medication errors, always instruct patients to check the insulin label before each injection
  • Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur with insulin products, including Tresiba®
  • As with all insulins, Tresiba® use can lead to life-threatening hypokalemia, which then may cause respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. Closely monitor potassium levels in patients at risk of hypokalemia and treat if indicated
  • Fluid retention and heart failure can occur with concomitant use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are PPAR-gamma agonists, and insulin, including Tresiba®. Patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure occurs, dosage reduction or discontinuation of the TZD must be considered

Adverse Reactions

  • Adverse reactions commonly associated with Tresiba® are hypoglycemia, allergic reactions, injection site reactions, lipodystrophy, pruritus, rash, edema, and weight gain

Drug Interactions

There are certain drugs that may cause clinically significant drug interactions with Tresiba®.

  • Drugs that may increase the risk of hypoglycemia: antidiabetic agents, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blocking agents, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, pentoxifylline, pramlintide, salicylates, somatostatin analog (e.g., octreotide), sulfonamide antibiotics, GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT-2 inhibitors
  • Drugs that may decrease the blood glucose lowering effect: atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine and clozapine), corticosteroids, danazol, diuretics, estrogens, glucagon, isoniazid, niacin, oral contraceptives, phenothiazines, progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives), protease inhibitors, somatropin, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), and thyroid hormones
  • Drugs that may increase or decrease the blood glucose lowering effect: alcohol, beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts, and pentamidine
  • Drugs that may blunt the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia: beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine

Please click here for Tresiba® Prescribing Information.

 

References:

  1. Tresiba [package insert]. Plainsboro, NJ: Novo Nordisk Inc; August 2018.
  2. Levemir [package insert]. Plainsboro, NJ: Novo Nordisk Inc; February 2015.